Nfl Football

See More About:    Nfl Football        Nfl Football        

This is a product assessment for Nfl Football. Many shoppers don"t straightaway think of eBay when it comes to Nfl Football, but in fact eBay is amongst the top three retailers in the nations marketplace. Be amazed with the items you will discover here at Top Shelf Antiques.

NFL FOOTBALL THE BEGINNING OF A NEW MILLENNIUM PIN SEATTLE SEAHAWKS
nfl football the beginning of a new millennium pin seattle seahawks
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL INDIANAPOLIS COLTS 1 FAN FINGER PIN
nfl football indianapolis colts 1 fan finger pin
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL LUCAS OIL STADIUM INAUGURAL GAME SEPT 2008 INDIANAPOLIS COLTS PIN
nfl football lucas oil stadium inaugural game sept 2008 indianapolis colts pin
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL TEAM LOGO INDIANAPOLIS COLTS PIN
nfl football team logo indianapolis colts pin
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL TEAM LOGO INDIANAPOLIS COLTS PIN
nfl football team logo indianapolis colts pin
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL TEAM LOGO DENVER BRONCOS PIN
nfl football team logo denver broncos pin
$7.99
quality
SUPER BOWL XLVI INDIANAPOLIS 2012 PIN NFL FOOTBALL
super bowl xlvi indianapolis 2012 pin nfl football
$7.99
quality
SUPER BOWL XXVIII ATLANTA GEORGIA DOME PIN NFL FOOTBALL
super bowl xxviii atlanta georgia dome pin nfl football
$7.99
quality
NEW YORK JETS SUPER BOWL III NFL FOOTBALL PIN BUTTON
new york jets super bowl iii nfl football pin button
$10.00
quality
NEW YORK GIANTS GIANT 6 INCH NFL FOOTBALL PINBACK
new york giants giant 6 inch nfl football pinback
$9.00
quality
N Mint Funko Pop NFL Eagles Carson Wentz 74 Football Super Bowl Value Rising
n mint funko pop nfl eagles carson wentz 74 football super bowl value rising
$31.00
quality
NFL FOOTBALL DALLAS COWBOYS HELMET PIN
nfl football dallas cowboys helmet pin
$5.99
quality
NFL ALUMNI SUPER BOWL XXXI CARING FOR KIDS PIN FOOTBALL
nfl alumni super bowl xxxi caring for kids pin football
$11.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL SUPER BOWL XXXI NEW ORLEANS LOUISIANA SUPERDOME PIN 1997
nfl football super bowl xxxi new orleans louisiana superdome pin 1997
$11.99
quality
Funko Pop Football NFL Legends Terry Bradshaw IN STOCK
funko pop football nfl legends terry bradshaw in stock
$6.99
quality
Funko Pop Football NFL Legends Lawrence Taylor IN STOCK
funko pop football nfl legends lawrence taylor in stock
$6.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL TEAM LOGO DETROIT LIONS PIN
nfl football team logo detroit lions pin
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL TEAM LOGO INDIANAPOLIS COLTS PIN
nfl football team logo indianapolis colts pin
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL ST LOUIS RAMS INAUGURAL SEASON 1995 PIN
nfl football st louis rams inaugural season 1995 pin
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL JACKSONVILLE JAGUARS INAUGURAL SEASON 1995 PIN
nfl football jacksonville jaguars inaugural season 1995 pin
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL SUPER BOWL XXIX SOUTH FLORIDA HOST COMMITTEE SUPERHOST PIN MIAMI
nfl football super bowl xxix south florida host committee superhost pin miami
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL SUPER BOWL XXIX MIAMI 1995 SPONSOR GATORADE PIN
nfl football super bowl xxix miami 1995 sponsor gatorade pin
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL SUPER BOWL XXIX SOUTH FLORIDA HOST COMMITTEE PIN MIAMI
nfl football super bowl xxix south florida host committee pin miami
$7.99
quality
Denver Broncos Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
denver broncos pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$3.50
quality
Seattle Seahawks Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
seattle seahawks pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$3.50
quality
New York Jets Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
new york jets pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Atlanta Falcons Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
atlanta falcons pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$3.50
quality
San Francisco 49ers Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
san francisco 49ers pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Houston Oilers Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
houston oilers pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Buffalo Bills Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
buffalo bills pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Detroit Lions Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
detroit lions pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Miami Dolphins Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
miami dolphins pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Kansas City Chiefs Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
kansas city chiefs pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Indianapolis Colts Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
indianapolis colts pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Minnesota Vikings Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
minnesota vikings pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Cleveland Browns Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
cleveland browns pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Cincinnati Bengals Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
cincinnati bengals pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Dallas Cowboys Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
dallas cowboys pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$3.50
quality
Washington Redskins Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
washington redskins pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Philadelphia Eagles Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
philadelphia eagles pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$3.50
quality
Arizona Cardinals Pinback NFL Football 1980 Vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS
arizona cardinals pinback nfl football 1980 vintage coca cola coke nos
$4.00
quality
Funko Pop NFL Football Carolina Panthers Cam Newton toys vinyl adult collectible
funko pop nfl football carolina panthers cam newton toys vinyl adult collectible
$20.75
quality
Green Bay Packers Pin Lot of 2 NFL Football Super Bowl XXXI 1996 Champions NOS
green bay packers pin lot of 2 nfl football super bowl xxxi 1996 champions nos
$7.46
quality
Funko Pop NFL Drew Brees  11 Saints Vinyl Figure Brand New football POP
funko pop nfl drew brees 11 saints vinyl figure brand new football pop
$10.19
quality
Houston Oilers Lapel Pin NFL Football Vintage 1995 by Peter David Inc
houston oilers lapel pin nfl football vintage 1995 by peter david inc
$8.00
quality
NFL Cam Newton Funko Pop Keychain Sports Toy
nfl cam newton funko pop keychain sports toy
$7.42
quality
Buffalo Bills Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
buffalo bills pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
Cincinnati Bengals Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
cincinnati bengals pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
Tampa Bay Buccaneers Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
tampa bay buccaneers pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
St Louis Rams Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
st louis rams pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
Kansas City Chiefs Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
kansas city chiefs pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
Atlanta Falcons Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
atlanta falcons pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$12.00
quality
New York Jets Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
new york jets pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
New York Giants Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
new york giants pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
Detroit Lions Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
detroit lions pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
Minnesota Vikings Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
minnesota vikings pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
Jacksonville Jaguars Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
jacksonville jaguars pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
Tennessee Titans Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
tennessee titans pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
Funko Pop NFL Wave 2 Marshawn Lynch Vinyl Action Figure Collectible Toy 7562
funko pop nfl wave 2 marshawn lynch vinyl action figure collectible toy 7562
$10.75
quality
1973 Super Bowl VII DOLPHINS v REDSKINS NFL Football Collar Lapel Starline Pin 6
1973 super bowl vii dolphins v redskins nfl football collar lapel starline pin 6
$9.00
quality
JACK KEMP FOR PRESIDENT CAMPAIGN SOFT FOOTBALL NFL QUARTERBACK
jack kemp for president campaign soft football nfl quarterback
$29.99
quality
Delmas Super Bowl Vince Lombardi Trophy NFL Football Philly Pin Eagles 52 Dilly
delmas super bowl vince lombardi trophy nfl football philly pin eagles 52 dilly
$24.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL SUPER BOWL XXIX JOE ROBBIE STADIUM MIAMI FLORIDA McDONALDS PIN
nfl football super bowl xxix joe robbie stadium miami florida mcdonalds pin
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL TEAM LOGO PIN SEATTLE SEAHAWKS
nfl football team logo pin seattle seahawks
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL TEAM LOGO PIN SEATTLE SEAHAWKS
nfl football team logo pin seattle seahawks
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL TEAM LOGO PIN NEW ENGLAND PATRIOTS
nfl football team logo pin new england patriots
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL TEAM LOGO PIN TAMPA BAY BUCCANEERS
nfl football team logo pin tampa bay buccaneers
$7.99
quality
NFL FOOTBALL TEAM LOGO PIN TAMPA MIAMI DOLPHINS
nfl football team logo pin tampa miami dolphins
$7.99
quality
Funko Pop NFL Wave 4 Football Seahawks Russell Wilson 57 IN STOCK
funko pop nfl wave 4 football seahawks russell wilson 57 in stock
$13.29
quality
Funko Pop NFL Wave 4 Football Raiders DEREK CARR 47 IN STOCK
funko pop nfl wave 4 football raiders derek carr 47 in stock
$13.29
quality
Jan 26 1997 New Orleans 1996 NFL Champions Football Pin
jan 26 1997 new orleans 1996 nfl champions football pin
$11.25
quality
NFL Pro Line Portraits Football Sports Advertising Pin
nfl pro line portraits football sports advertising pin
$11.25
quality
Funko NFL Julio Jones Atlanta Falcon 2017 Home Uniform Wave 4 Vinyl 72 NEW
funko nfl julio jones atlanta falcon 2017 home uniform wave 4 vinyl 72 new
$12.49
quality
Funko NFL Matt Ryan Atlanta Falcon 2017 Home Uniform Wave 4 Vinyl Figure 73 NEW
funko nfl matt ryan atlanta falcon 2017 home uniform wave 4 vinyl figure 73 new
$12.49
quality
NFL National Football League Team Lunchbox  Thermos King Seeley 1978 Vintage
nfl national football league team lunchbox thermos king seeley 1978 vintage
$56.99
quality
Funko Pop Football NFL Aaron Rodgers Green Bay Color Rush w protector Packers
funko pop football nfl aaron rodgers green bay color rush w protector packers
$8.95
quality
Funko Pop Football NFL Julio Jones Atlanta Falcons Home Jersey w protector NHand
funko pop football nfl julio jones atlanta falcons home jersey w protector nhand
$8.95
quality
Funko Pop Football NFL Matt Ryan Atlanta Falcons Home Jersey w protector In Hand
funko pop football nfl matt ryan atlanta falcons home jersey w protector in hand
$8.95
quality
Funko Pop Football NFL Julian Edelman New England Patriots Home Jersey protector
funko pop football nfl julian edelman new england patriots home jersey protector
$8.95
quality
NFL Football Metal Lunchbox Cowboys Broncos Rams Raiders Steelers
nfl football metal lunchbox cowboys broncos rams raiders steelers
$91.34
quality
Original Vintage NFL Football Pin Worlds Greatest Buckeye Fan 1979 Pin Badge
original vintage nfl football pin worlds greatest buckeye fan 1979 pin badge
$9.99
quality
Funko Pop NFL Legends Joe Montana In Hand VHTF San Francisco SF 49ers Hard Find
funko pop nfl legends joe montana in hand vhtf san francisco sf 49ers hard find
$149.99
quality
HESS MIKE ALSTOTT A TRAIN TAMPA BAY BUCCANEER BOBBLEHEAD NFL FOOTBALL RJ STADIUM
hess mike alstott a train tampa bay buccaneer bobblehead nfl football rj stadium
$12.99
quality
Atlanta Falcons Lot of 2 Pin Collection Set NFL Football Coca Cola Coke Vintage
atlanta falcons lot of 2 pin collection set nfl football coca cola coke vintage
$7.46
quality
Atlanta Falcons Lot of 2 Lapel Pin Collection Set NFL Football Huddles Vintage
atlanta falcons lot of 2 lapel pin collection set nfl football huddles vintage
$8.00
quality
Buffalo Bills Pin NFL Football 80 vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS New Old Stock
buffalo bills pin nfl football 80 vintage coca cola coke nos new old stock
$3.42
quality
Dallas Cowboys Pin NFL Football 80 vintage Coca Cola Coke NOS New Old Stock
dallas cowboys pin nfl football 80 vintage coca cola coke nos new old stock
$3.42
quality
Cleveland Browns Pin NFL Football Logo  1998 Peter David vintage
cleveland browns pin nfl football logo 1998 peter david vintage
$8.00
quality
Super Bowl XXXII 32 Pin Denver Broncos Champions NFL Football by Peter David Inc
super bowl xxxii 32 pin denver broncos champions nfl football by peter david inc
$4.42
quality
Vintage Kickoff Carolina NFL Panthers Football Pinback Button
vintage kickoff carolina nfl panthers football pinback button
$5.00
quality

Autographed Detroit Lions NFL Football C Johnson M Stafford R Bush
autographed detroit lions nfl football c johnson m stafford r bush
$175.00
quality
HALLMARK Keepsake 2004 PEYTON MANNING Indianapolis Colts FOOTBALL LEGENDS NFL
hallmark keepsake 2004 peyton manning indianapolis colts football legends nfl
$23.88
quality
Funko Pop NFL Wave 1 Packers Clay Matthews Figure + FUNKO PROTECTIVE CASE
funko pop nfl wave 1 packers clay matthews figure + funko protective case
$24.99
quality
Funko Pop NFL Wave 1 Richard Sherman Vinyl Figure + FUNKO PROTECTIVE CASE
funko pop nfl wave 1 richard sherman vinyl figure + funko protective case
$24.99
quality
Funko Pop NFL Wave 2 Marshawn Lynch Collectable Figure + FUNKO PROTECTIVE CASE
funko pop nfl wave 2 marshawn lynch collectable figure + funko protective case
$24.99
quality
9 Bud Light NFL Football Beer Hat Baseball Stretchy Mesh Playbook Cap Wholesale
9 bud light nfl football beer hat baseball stretchy mesh playbook cap wholesale
$22.99
quality
Funko Pop Freddy Fundays SDCC 2015 1 196 Limited Edition RARE NFL Football NEW
funko pop freddy fundays sdcc 2015 1 196 limited edition rare nfl football new
$175.00
quality
John Elway Autograph NFL Denver Broncos Auto Signed Tuff Stuff Football Magazine
john elway autograph nfl denver broncos auto signed tuff stuff football magazine
$55.00
quality
Miller Light Beer Original NFL MNF Football Helmet Neon Sign
miller light beer original nfl mnf football helmet neon sign
$225.00
quality
Funko POP NFL New England Patriots Rob Gronkowski 56 Figure GameStop Exclusive
funko pop nfl new england patriots rob gronkowski 56 figure gamestop exclusive
$25.00
quality
Danbury Mint Washington Redskins Pennant Light Collectible Vintage Football NFL
danbury mint washington redskins pennant light collectible vintage football nfl
$69.95
quality
Funko Pop Football NFL Dallas Cowboys Dak Prescott Ezekiel Elliott
funko pop football nfl dallas cowboys dak prescott ezekiel elliott
$25.00
quality
VTG 7 Joe Theismann Autographed WASHINGTON REDSKINS NFL Football Helmet MVP QB
vtg 7 joe theismann autographed washington redskins nfl football helmet mvp qb
$89.52
quality
BUD LIGHT NFL NY GIANTS BEER PINT GLASSES  NFL FOOTBALL RAIL BAR MAT RUNNER NEW
bud light nfl ny giants beer pint glasses nfl football rail bar mat runner new
$33.29
quality
NFL historic Medallion from Seattle Kings football club
nfl historic medallion from seattle kings football club
$500.00
quality
SEATTLE SEAHAWKS NFL FOOTBALL GLASS NEON SIGN
seattle seahawks nfl football glass neon sign
$99.99
quality
Los Angeles Raiders Vintage metal License car plate football NFL 48hrs Shipping
los angeles raiders vintage metal license car plate football nfl 48hrs shipping
$39.99
quality
STUDIO 100 LINDEN GIUSEPPI FOOTBALL NFL CAR KEY COIN ACCESSORY HOLDER
studio 100 linden giuseppi football nfl car key coin accessory holder
$20.00
quality
COORS LIGHT Official Beer of NFL 64 oz Pitcher Football Shaped acrylic
coors light official beer of nfl 64 oz pitcher football shaped acrylic
$29.99
quality
1994 NFL PILSNER SHELF football PHILADELPHIA EAGLES beer glass shelf bar room
1994 nfl pilsner shelf football philadelphia eagles beer glass shelf bar room
$47.50
quality
Houston Texans Purse Tote Bag Football Team Logos NEW Bradford Exchange NFL
houston texans purse tote bag football team logos new bradford exchange nfl
$99.99
quality
HAND SIGNED Joey Harrington Detroit Lions QB Autographed Official NFL Football
hand signed joey harrington detroit lions qb autographed official nfl football
$75.00
quality
HAND SIGNED Arrelious Benn University of Illinois Jacksonville Jags NFL Football
hand signed arrelious benn university of illinois jacksonville jags nfl football
$25.00
quality
Super Bowl 32 Wilson NFL Football Bartles  Jaymes Peter Vella Broncos Packers
super bowl 32 wilson nfl football bartles jaymes peter vella broncos packers
$24.99
quality
1930S HATIKVOH NEW YORK FOOTBALL CLUB JEWISH SPORT PIN BADGE JUDAICA ISRAEL NYC
1930s hatikvoh new york football club jewish sport pin badge judaica israel nyc
$95.00
quality
Bud Light Tin Sign Heres to 50 Years Super Bowl NFL Football Budweiser NEW
bud light tin sign heres to 50 years super bowl nfl football budweiser new
$39.99
quality
Huge Bud Light Welcome Football Fans NFL Teams Budweiser Anheuser Busch New
huge bud light welcome football fans nfl teams budweiser anheuser busch new
$29.99
quality
Vintage Chicago Bears NFL Football Helmet 28 Lamp RARE
vintage chicago bears nfl football helmet 28 lamp rare
$75.00
quality

Didn"t find what your looking for? Search our real time inventory below...

Nfl Football

See More About:    Nfl Football        Nfl Football        
NFL Football - NEP vs BR 21.01.2013 ran Sat.1 German Tv 1/2

The impact of game outcomes on fantasy football participation and National Football League media consumption.

Introduction

With more than 32 million participants, the activity of fantasy
sports has become a popular endeavor for the contemporary sport fan
(Fantasy Sports Trade Association [FSTA], 2011). Fantasy football, in
particular, has garnered the most attention as an intoxicating
complement to traditional National Football League (NFL) fandom. Defined
as an ancillary sport media service wherein individual participants
compete weekly in an online environment based on the statistical output
of real-world NFL players, the activity has blossomed from a niche
vocation into a pop-culture phenomenon. As a result, sport industry
practitioners and researchers have focused their inquiry on the evolving
habits associated with this activity as a means to better understand
this highly-engaged group of sport consumers.

Recent research has suggested fantasy sport participants tend to
spend more time engaged in professional sports, whether online or
through television viewership, and have even been found to spend more
money attending sporting events and purchasing merchandise (Drayer,
Shapiro, Dwyer, Morse, & White, 2010; FSTA, 2008; Karg &
McDonald, 2011; Nesbitt & King, 2010a; Nesbitt & King, 2010b).
Additionally, a 2008 study by Ipsos Public Affairs as cited by Fisher
(2008) found that fantasy sports participants not only out-consume the
general public, but also other non-participating sport fans, in the
leading product categories.

As an activity, fantasy sports participation operates in a virtual
world and fosters a larger scope of league interest, as a participant
may own/manage players on several teams throughout the league (Dwyer,
2011b). Thus, fantasy sports rely heavily on sport media consumption.
Streaming scores and statistics, real-time pre-game news and analysis,
and league-wide game access from products such as DirecTV's NFL
Sunday Ticket and Major League Baseball's MLB.TV are highly sought
after media components for this group of sport fans. As a result,
Internet use, television viewership (live games and other programming),
and cell phone use were reported as important modes of media consumption
(Drayer et al., 2010; Dwyer & Drayer, 2010). From a theoretical
perspective, researchers have also studied participant motives,
involvement level, locus of control, and team loyalty (cf., Dwyer,
2011a; Dwyer & Kim, 2011; Farquhar & Meeds, 2007; Kwak, Lim,
Lee, & Mahan, 2010). However, to firmly understand the behaviors
associated with an experiential phenomenon (i.e., fantasy sports
participation and NFL media consumption), a foundational approach is
recommended (Fazio & Zanna, 1978). Therefore, this study examined
the congruency between a participant's attitudes and behavior.

Attitude-Behavior Relationship

The attitude-behavior relationship (A-BR) framework was developed
by Fazio, Powell, and Herr (1983) to help understand the influence
attitudes have on behavior. Defined within the framework as "an
association between a given object and a given evaluation" (Fazio
et al., 1983, p. 724), an attitude has been established for decades as
the fundamental antecedent to behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977). The
A-BR framework suggests a positive attitude toward a product leads to
increased consumption and a negative or non-attitude leads to decreased
or non-consumption. Fazio, Powell, and Williams (1989) tested the
framework on consumers with food products, and it was determined that
individuals with stronger attitudes toward products showed greater
attitude-behavior consistency.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Accepted as a foundational construct in marketing, advertising, and
consumer psychology (Foxall, 1990), the A-BR framework has also been
extended to sport fandom (Mahony & Howard, 1998; Mahony &
Moorman, 1999; 2000). The framework was teamed with Zillman, Bryant, and
Sapolsky's (1989) disposition theory of sportfanship which suggests
sport fans derive enjoyment from watching their favorite team succeed
and watching a disliked team fail. As a result, it was found both strong
positive and strong negative attitudes toward a sport team led to
increased spectator sport viewership (Mahony & Howard, 1998; Mahony
& Moorman, 1999). In other words, television viewership of
professional sport teams was not limited to one's favorite team, as
one's rival team also spurred consumption. Non-viewership was a
result of a neutral or non-attitude toward a team. Due to these
unexpected findings, spectator sport has emerged as a captivating
context for the application of the A-BR framework.

Fantasy sport, in particular, has been a growing context for
application of the framework, as this segment of sport fans have
displayed over-emotional, illogical, and oftentimes irrational patterns
of behavior (Drayer et al., 2010; Dwyer, 2011b; Karg & McDonald,
2011). Thus, guided by the work of Fazio et al. (1983), Drayer et al.
(2010) qualitatively developed and proposed a conceptual framework to
explain the relationship between fantasy football and National Football
League (NFL) consumption. The authors provided the following
propositions to explain the phenomenon: (1) the activation of attitudes
facilitated by fantasy football participation created new perceptions of
the NFL; (2) these redefined perceptions broadened media consumption,
and (3) one's perceptions and media consumption of the NFL were
constantly changing based on NFL game outcomes related to one's
fantasy and favorite NFL team. In all, the researchers concluded that
fantasy participation created new attitudes (attraction to players &
interactivity) and altered normative attitudes (team identification
& loyalty) which led to amplified media consumption habits (TV,
internet, & cell phone).

In one follow-up study, Karg and McDonald (2011) surveyed a large
sample of Australian Football League (AFL) fans, fantasy participating
and non-participating, to compare the attitudes and behaviors associated
with AFL fandom. The results suggested fantasy participants out consumed
non-participants in the areas of game attendance, TV viewership and
other forms of media consumption, merchandise purchases, and sport
gambling activities, while favorite team attachment remained similar for
both groups. Dwyer (2011b) quantitatively tested and confirmed Drayer et
al.'s (2010) propositions #1 and #2 by examining fantasy football
involvement in association with intentions to watch televised NFL games.
The author found that fantasy participation duplicated a sports
fan's dispositional A-BR with sport teams in that a participant was
attracted to and consumed one's own fantasy players and one's
opponent's fantasy players in addition to one's favorite NFL
team and their rival. In all, media consumption habits increased
significantly as a result of this widened scope of interest.

The A-BR framework is not without critics. For instance, Azjen and
Fishbein (2000) revisited the automaticity of attitude activation and
found attitudes to be much less stable than previously hypothesized.
Herr (1995) argued the consistency between attitude and behavior may
have less to do with a hypothesized relationship and more to do with
shared method variance. This criticism has also been extended to
sport-consumer behavior. In the process of developing a valid and
reliable measure for sport consumer attitudes toward corporate social
responsibility, researchers Walker and Heere (2001) found that a
non-linear relationship between attitudes (awareness & affect) and
behavior, as prescribed in the A-BR framework, resulted in a more valid
and reliable model. In all, much debate centers on how attitudes
influence behavior and it remains essential that researchers continue to
empirically test the evolving relationship.

Identification, Attachment, and Attraction

Defined by Callero (1985) as the process of linking an
individual's experience and internal information processing to
social networks created through interactions with others, identification
with sport, more specifically sport teams, is a well-researched area.
Underpinned in Tajfel and Turner's (1986) social identity theory,
previous studies have found evidence that identification is an
influential predictor of sport consumption (Madrigal, 1995; Trail,
Anderson, & Fink, 2000, 2005; Trail, Fink, & Anderson, 2003;
Wann & Branscombe, 1993). Trail et al. (2000) defined identification
as "an orientation of the self in regard to other objects including
a person or group that results in feeling or sentiments of close
attachment" (p. 165-166).

From this definition, Trail, Robinson, Dick, and Gillentine (2003)
examined sport spectator motives in association with distinct points of
attachment. Robinson and Trail (2005) extended this line of research by
developing and validating a Points of Attachment Index (PAI) with the
following underlying fan connection points: team, player, coach, sport,
community, and level of play. The authors concluded the different forms
of identification influenced consumption behavior distinctively and
supported measuring identification by distinct categories. Researchers
Kwon, Trail, and Anderson (2006) also found that various points of
attachment influenced future consumption intentions to attend games and
purchase merchandise differently.

Extended to fantasy sports, the aforementioned Karg and McDonald
(2011) study found evidence of unique attitudes and differing points of
attachment for fans who participate in fantasy sport compared to
non-fantasy participating Australian Rules Football fans. Shapiro,
Drayer, and Dwyer (2011) examined differences in points of attachment
and media consumption related to Major League Baseball (MLB) and fantasy
baseball. The results suggested attachment to one's favorite MLB
team, community, and sport appear to be the most ubiquitous connection
points for fantasy baseball participants, in that these points were
found to be significant across varying forms of fantasy participation
and MLB consumption.

In 2001, Funk and James developed the Psychological Continuum Model
(PCM) to conceptually guide how spectators psychologically move from
awareness of a sport/team to allegiance to that sport/team (Funk &
James, 2001). The PCM includes four stages with specific attributes and
applications for individuals within each phase. Awareness and attraction
are the first two stages. Each includes a lower-level connection to the
sport object, but each lacks the psychological commitment present at the
higher levels, attachment and allegiance. According to the authors,
movement along the PCM toward fan allegiance provides outcomes that are
more durable and impactful for individual sport organizations.

Given the short duration of fantasy football player ownership
(typically one year), Drayer et al. (2010) proposed that the
psychological connection with one's fantasy players rarely reaches
the attachment level. However, the connection during this short span is
highly-interactive; thus, the authors suggested it goes beyond mere
awareness. As a result, this study utilized one's attraction to
his/her fantasy football players in conjunction with media consumption.
Conceptualized as the stage on the continuum where spectators connect
for hedonic motives and social situational factors, attraction is the
level where attitudes form (Funk & James, 2001; 2006). To measure
attraction, the authors prescribed the application of the attraction
facet of the leisure involvement construct (cf., Havitz & Dimanche,
1997; Iwaski & Havitz, 1998; Laurent & Kapferer, 1985).

The purpose of the current study was to assess Drayer et al.'s
(2010) proposition #3 by examining one's attitudinal and behavioral
changes toward the NFL with twelve weeks of fantasy and favorite team
outcomes serving as an extraneous treatment. Specifically, attraction to
fantasy players was tested as the newly acquired attitude and team
identification in the form of attachment was included as the normative
attitude. This study utilized a pre-post research design to answer the
following research questions:

RQ1: How do game outcomes impact attraction to fantasy players?

RQ2: How do game outcomes impact NFL team attachment?

RQ3: How do game outcomes impact fantasy team media consumption?

RQ4: How do game outcomes impact NFL team media consumption?

RQ5: How do game outcomes impact general NFL media consumption?

Method

Participants

This study targeted FSTA subscribers through an online survey
protocol. The FSTA is a conglomerate of 120 companies ranging in size
and scope. The group serves somewhere between five and seven million
fantasy sports consumers. To assess a baseline of attitudes and
behavioral intentions prior to the NFL season and the same variables
after NFL and fantasy-related outcomes, data collection occurred in two
phases. The initial email solicitation for participation was sent to a
panel of 1,000 email addresses provided by the FSTA. The email was sent
during the third week of August 2011. Two follow-up emails were sent to
remind potential respondents at one week and three weeks. Data
collection for phase 1 ended on September 7th, 2011, so that no
regular-season game results could interfere with this phase of the
study. The response rate for phase 1 was 31.7%, as 317 respondents
started the online questionnaire but only 302 surveys were deemed
useable.

Phase 2 of the study was conducted after week 12 of the NFL regular
season. Week 12 was selected as it provided the longest amount of time
from the start of the regular season but before the fantasy football
playoffs which typically begin in week 14. To contact phase 1
participants again, respondents were asked to provide their email
addresses as consent to participate in phase 2 of the study. Phase 2
emails were sent in two iterations to remind potential respondents of
the survey. The first was sent on November 28, 2011. Response rate for
phase 2 was 78.1% as 236 participants completed the phase 2
questionnaire. Sample demographic and descriptive statistics are
provided in Table 1. It is important note as a limitation to this study
that fantasy sports participants are highly engaged sport fans. While
this segment is growing, the generalizability of this study's
results will need to be tempered as the consumption habits, team
attachments, and viewership behavior may be at higher levels than the
general sport fan population.

Instrumentation

The survey questionnaire was hosted online by Formsite.com. Phase 1
included 34 questions including demographic and descriptive items. Phase
2 was limited to 26 items. The study's design was one in which each
respondent was pre-tested and post-tested on the following dependent
variables: Attachment to NFL Team, Attraction to Fantasy Players, and
media consumption intentions (team, fantasy, & general NFL). What
follows is a brief summary of each scale.

Attachment Items--To measure participant identification, the
current study employed the team-specific section of Trail, Robinson,
Dick, and Gillentine's (2003) Points of Attachment Index which
segments identification based on a fan's connection with his/her
favorite NFL team. This point of attachment was chosen based on the
conceptual work of Drayer et al. (2010) which posited team
identification as an important normative attitude for fantasy football
participants. The scale contained three items measured on a seven point
Likert-type scale.

Attraction Items--To measure attraction, three items were developed
based on the suggestion by Drayer et al. (2010) and the PCM work of Funk
and James (2001). Five leisure attraction items were adapted to the
activity of fantasy football, pilot-tested, panel-tested, and refined
before utilized. Ultimately, the scores of a three-item scale showed
evidence of good reliability and validity (see Table 2). Each item was
measured on a seven point Likert-type scale.

Media Consumption Items--Nine total items were used to measure
changes in media consumption. To assess fantasy-related and favorite NFL
team-related consumption, participants were asked the likelihood of
following one's fantasy and favorite team via the internet,
television, and cell phone. Lastly, intentions to watch Monday Night
Football, pre-game shows, and post-game shows were asked to assess
general NFL-related media consumption. These items were chosen to
reflect general NFL media consumption based on the results of Drayer et
al.'s (2010) conceptual framework and previous media consumption
studies related to the NFL (Fortunato, 2004; Oates, 2009). Each item was
measured on an eleven point Juster scale.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

To formulate the subject variable, participants were categorized by
the level of success/failure experienced during the first twelve weeks
of NFL regular season. During Phase 2 of the survey, the respondents
were asked to identify their favorite NFL team and the win-loss record
from their most preferred fantasy football league. The sample was then
split into four groups based on the winning percentage of the NFL team
and the fantasy football record identified (see Figure 2). For
consistency reasons, a fantasy team with a .500 record was considered a
winning record, and based on the selection of week 12 as the report
date, no NFL team had a .500 record. Group 1 (BF) experienced fantasy
and favorite team failure while Group 4 (NF) experienced success with
both teams. Group 2 (FF) experienced favorite team success, but fantasy
failure, and Group 3 (TF) experienced the opposite. As an example, if a
participant was a Green Bay Packers fan (11-0) and their fantasy
football team was 3-9, the participant would be placed in Group 2 (FF).

Analysis

A pre-post research design was used in the study. Descriptive and
demographic statistics were used to ensure the characteristics of the
sample mirrored the greater population. To answer RQ1 and RQ2, two
separate repeated measures analyses of variances (ANOVAs) were conducted
to determine the significance of the extraneous treatment within each
group and the differences between each group as a result of the
interaction effect at week 12 of the NFL season. To answer RQ3, RQ4, and
RQ5, nine separate repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to determine
the significance of the extraneous treatment within each group and the
differences between each group as a result of the interaction effect at
week 12 of the NFL season. Differences between each group during the
pre-season were not expected, but were assessed anyway.

Multiple comparison procedures (post hoc tests) were then assessed
to determine which group means differ after the overall significance
tests demonstrated at least one significant difference (Klockars &
Sax, 1986). Lastly, tests of simple effects were conducted to determine
the statistical significance of the change in participant attitudes and
behavioral intentions from pre-season to week 12.

Results

The current sample of fantasy participants was slightly younger and
less affluent, but for the most part matched the demographics and
descriptives of the larger fantasy football population (FSTA, 2008).
Cronbach's, Average Variance Extracted, and correlation scores were
interpreted on the attitudinal constructs to determine preliminary
reliability and convergent validity. In all, the scale scores (Table 2)
showed adequate to good evidence of internal consistency, convergent
validity, and discriminant validity (Fornell & Larcker, 1981;
Nunnally, 1978). Further validation is required and encouraged of the
Attraction to Fantasy Players scale, as it has only been tested twice on
the same sample.

Attraction to Fantasy Players and NFL Team Attachment (RQ1 &
RQ2)

The interaction effect between fantasy and NFL game outcomes and
attraction to fantasy football players resulted in a statistically
significant difference (F[df]=19.204[3,126]; p<.001). As expected,
the post hoc analysis (Tukey) of the interaction effect during the
pre-season did not result in any statistically significant attraction
score differences. At week 12, however, statistically significant
attraction score differences existed between groups that experienced
fantasy team failure (BF: [sd]=3.816[.856] & FF: [sd]=4.161[.963])
and the groups that did not (TF: [sd]=4.681[1.026] & NF:
[sd]=5.406[.755]). The attraction to fantasy players scale was measured
on a seven point Likert-type scale. In addition, those who experienced
fantasy team success, but favorite team failure indicated significantly
higher attraction scores than those who experienced success with both
teams. The test of simple effects results (Figure 3) suggest a
statistically significant change in attraction scores from the
pre-season to Week 12 for BF (negative), FF (negative), and TF
(positive), while NF's attraction scores remained constant. The
impact of NFL game outcomes on favorite NFL team attachment resulted in
no statistically significant differences within-subjects or as a result
of the interaction effect (F[df]=.965[3,126]; p=.124). The group mean
attachment scores ranged from 5.661 to 6.156 on a seven-point
Likert-type scale.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Fantasy Football-Related Media Consumption (RQ3)

Three separate repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to analyze
the impact of fantasy and NFL game outcomes on fantasy football-specific
media consumption, one for each mode of media consumption (inter net
usage, televised game broadcasts & cell phone usage). The results
suggested a statistically significant interaction effect for televised
game broadcasts and cell phone usage (Television: F[df]=5.517[3,126],
p<.001 & Cell Phone: F[df]=11.867[3,126], p<.001), but no
statistical significance for internet usage (F[df]=.097[3,126]; p=.961).
The pre-season post hoc analyses for the consumption of both fantasy
team-related televised game broadcasts and cell phone usage did not
result in any significant differences between the groups. The televised
game broadcast post hoc analysis (Tukey) at Week 12, however, resulted
in statistically significant differences between groups that experienced
fantasy team failure (BF: [sd]=8.039[1.110] & FF: [sd]=7.951[1.209])
and the groups that did not (TF: [sd]=9.460[.813] & NF:
[sd]=9.115[.807]). All of the consumption scales were measured on an 11
point Juster scale. The cell phone usage post hoc analysis at Week 12
resulted in similar likelihood to consume score differences (BF: [sd]=
5.745[1.291], FF: [sd]=5.564[1.364], TF: [sd]=6.923[1.288], & NF:
[sd]=6.811[1.399]). The test of simple effects for the televised game
broadcast results (Figure 4) suggest a statistically significant change
in likelihood to consume scores from the pre-season to Week 12 for BF
(negative), FF (negative), and TF (positive), while NF's likelihood
to consume scores remained constant. The test of simple effects for the
cell phone usage results (Figure 5) suggest a statistically significant
change in likelihood to consume scores from the pre-season to Week 12
for BF (negative) and FF (negative), while NF's and TF's
likelihood to consume scores remained constant.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

Favorite NFL Team-Related Media Consumption (RQ4)

Three separate repeated measures ANOVAs were also conducted to
analyze the impact of fantasy and NFL game outcomes on favorite NFL team
media consumption (RQ4), one for each mode of media consumption. The
equality of covariance assumption (Box's Test) was violated for the
internet usage and televised game broadcasts analyses. Thus,
Pilai's Trace statistic was interpreted for these contrasts.
Wilk's Lambda was interpreted for the cell phone usage test. The
results suggested statistically significant interaction effects for each
mode of media consumption (Internet: P[df]=16.307[3,126], p<.001;
Television: P[df]=12.657[3,126], p<.001, & Cell Phone:
F[df]=5.768[3,126]; p<001). The pre-season post hoc analyses for each
mode of favorite NFL team media consumption did not result in any
significant differences between the groups. The internet usage post hoc
analysis (Tanhame) at Week 12 resulted in statistically significant
differences between groups that experienced favorite NFL team failure
(BF: [sd]=5.898[1.410] & TF: [sd]=6.850[1.273]) and the groups that
did not (fF: [sd]=7.567[1.030] & NF: [sd]=8.400[.789]). The groups
that experienced just fantasy or favorite NFL team failure (FF &
TF), however, did not differ significantly. The test of simple effects
for the internet usage results (Figure 6) suggested a statistically
significant change in likelihood to consume scores from the preseason to
Week 12 for BF (negative) and TF (negative), while NF's and
FF's likelihood to consume scores remained constant.

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

Similarly, the televised game broadcasts post hoc analysis
(Tanhame) at Week 12 resulted in statistically significant differences
between groups that experienced favorite NFL team failure (BF:
[sd]=7.531[1.111] & TF: [sd]=7.684[1.003]) and the groups that did
not (FF: [sd]=9.456[.789] & NF: [sd]=9.863[.681]). The test of
simple effects for the televised game broadcast results (Figure 7)
suggest a statistically significant change in likelihood to consume
scores from the pre-season to Week 12 for BF (negative) and TF
(negative), while NF's and FF's likelihood to consume scores
remained constant. The cell phone usage post hoc analysis (Tukey) at
Week 12 resulted in statistically significant differences between groups
that experienced favorite NFL team failure (BF: [sd]=4.259[2.005] &
TF: [sd]=3.816[2.413]) and the groups that did not (FF:
[sd]=5.967[1.295] & NF: [sd]=5.530[1.382]). The test of simple
effects for the cell phone usage results (Figure 8) suggest a
statistically significant change in likelihood to consume scores from
the pre-season to Week 12 for BF (negative) and TF (negative), while
NF's and FF's likelihood to consume scores remained constant.

General NFL Media Consumption (RQ5)

Lastly, three separate repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to
analyze the impact of fantasy and NFL game outcomes on general NFL media
consumption, one for each form of general NFL media programming
(pre-game television shows, post-game television shows, & MNF). The
results suggested a statistically significant interaction effect for
each form of general NFL media programming (Pre-Game TV:
P[df]=7.014[3,126], p<.001; Post-Game TV: P[df]=13.790[3,126],
p<.001, & MNF: P[df]=14.780[3,126]; p<001). The preseason post
hoc analyses for each form of general NFL media programming did not
result in any significant differences between the groups. The pregame
television show post hoc analyses (Tukey) at Week 12, however, resulted
in statistically significant differences between groups that experienced
fantasy team failure (BF: [sd]=5.987[1.301] & FF: [sd]=6.024[1.164])
and the groups that did not (TF: [sd]= 8.460[.946] & NF:
[sd]=7.732[1.190]). The postgame television show post hoc analysis
(Tukey) at Week 12 resulted in similar differences (BF:
[sd]=5.664[1.329], FF: [sd]=5.390[1.410], TF: [sd]=7.700[1.116], &
NF: [sd]=7.306[1.383]). The test of simple effects for the pre-game show
results (Figure 9) suggest a statistically significant change in
likelihood to consume scores from the pre-season to Week 12 for BF
(negative), FF (negative), and TF (positive), while NF's likelihood
to consume scores remained constant. The test of simple effects for the
post-game show results (Figure 10) suggest a statistically significant
change in likelihood to consume scores from the pre-season to Week 12
for BF (negative) and FF (negative), while NF's and TF's
likelihood to consume scores remained constant.

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]

The MNF post hoc analysis (Tukey) at Week 12 also resulted in
statistically significant differences between groups that experienced
fantasy team failure (BF: [sd]=5.595[1.368] & FF: [sd]=6.644[1.000])
and the groups that did not (TF: [sd]=8.202[.991] & NF:
[sd]=7.904[1.171]). In addition, BF's likelihood to watch MNF was
statistically significant different from FF's likelihood. The test
of simple effects for the MNF results (Figure 11) suggest a
statistically significant negative change in likelihood to consume
scores from the pre-season to Week 12 for each group.

Discussion

In 2010, Drayer et al. developed a conceptual model to explain the
relationship between fantasy football and National Football League (NFL)
consumption (see Figure 1). Within this framework, the authors'
proposed that a participant's perceptions and media consumption of
the NFL were constantly changing based on fantasy and favorite team
outcomes. This study assessed this proposition, by employing a pre-post
research design that examined the impact of favorite NFL team and
fantasy team game outcomes on attraction to fantasy football players,
attachment to NFL team, and media consumption of one's fantasy
team, favorite team, and the NFL, in general.

Taken together, the results of this study provide much needed,
in-depth psychographic and product usage information related to the
continually evolving relationship between fantasy football participants
and the NFL. More specifically, the findings support the contention that
fantasy football participation is a powerful brand-building activity for
the NFL where (1) enhanced media consumption of the NFL product was
spurred by successful fantasy participation, and (2) favorite NFL team
identification among this group of highly engaged football fans was not
negatively affected when media consumption of the team dissipated
slightly. For the NFL and media providers (i.e., ESPN, Yahoo!,
CBSsports.com, etc.), these findings suggest it may be prudent to take
extra measures to ensure fantasy participants remain competitive as long
as possible during the NFL season. For instance, encouraging
participants to compete in a balanced league could prolong competitive
interest. In other words, with skill related to fantasy football
participation ranging from one individual to the next, keeping the skill
variance within leagues to a minimum may keep participants interested in
their fantasy football teams longer as chances for the post season
persist. In addition, tweaking league settings to include a more
inclusive fantasy postseason may keep participants engaged longer into
the season. While individual league commissioners hold a great deal of
control with respect to league make-up and rules, nearly each site has a
default league setting which is often the most popular format. A slight
adjustment to the default setting that increased the number of teams
that make the playoffs may create increased NFL media consumption during
the second half of the season. The results are discussed in more detail
below.

With regard to the attraction results, the findings suggest NFL
game outcomes related to one's fantasy team impact attraction to
fantasy football players as fantasy team failure had a negative impact
on week 12 attraction levels. Team success also positively impacted
attraction levels, but only when associated with NFL team failure. This
confirms Drayer et al.'s (2010) conceptual framework that
stipulates game outcomes impact participant attitudes related to fantasy
football. Conversely, game outcomes had no impact on a fantasy
participant's NFL team attachment according to this study's
results. In other words, it appears that neither success nor failure of
one's fantasy or favorite NFL team had any impact on the
highly-developed connection between a participant and his/her favorite
NFL team. This contradicts the conceptual framework that suggested
normative attitudes (NFL team attachment) would change as result of
in-season outcomes. It does, however, support previous research about
the durability of team identification from an attitudinal perspective
(Trail et al., 2003; Wann & Branscombe, 1993). Additionally, it
validates the complementary nature of fantasy participation from an
attitudinal perspective (Dwyer, Shapiro, & Drayer, 2011; Karg &
McDonald, 2011).

NFL game outcomes, however, did impact media consumption intentions
for both one's fantasy team and favorite NFL team for nearly every
medium. The impact was primarily due to team failure. Team success had
little impact on media consumption intentions as it appears a
participant's consumption level enters the season at a high level
and remains high if the team is successful. This behavioral optimism is
common in sports as high expectations entering a season are how fans
maintain a "positive attitude/brand loyalty towards a product of
pedestrian quality" (p. 269, Bristow & Sebastian, 2001).

As for specific consumption intentions, fantasy team failure
resulted in statistically significant lower consumption intention scores
for fantasy team-related cell phone use and viewership of televised game
broadcasts. Statistically significant intention changes did not exist
with regard to fantasy-related internet use which is somewhat logical
given the activity's web dependence. In other words, it is
virtually impossible to participate in fantasy football without the
internet, so it is intuitive to think that internet use would remain
relatively constant despite failure because a decrease in
fantasy-related internet use would essentially result in
non-participation. Interestingly, favorite NFL team failure also
impacted fantasy team-related consumption as the group that experienced
fantasy success and favorite team failure indicated a statistically
significant increase in televised game viewership intentions. From an
A-BR perspective, this behavioral intention is congruent with the
attitudinal finding wherein a participant's attraction to fantasy
players increased as a result of fantasy success and favorite team
failure. In general, the fantasy team-related attraction and intention
results paralleled Fazio et al.'s (1983) A-BR framework in that
groups with higher attraction scores (attitudes) also indicated higher
media consumption intention scores (behaviors) and vice versa. In
addition, these results confirm Drayer et al.'s (2010) conceptual
framework where game outcomes influence both fantasy-related attitudes
and media consumption.

With regard to favorite NFL team media consumption, only favorite
team failure negatively impacted consumption intentions. While this
confirms Drayer et al.'s (2010) conceptual framework that suggests
a change in consumption as a result of game outcomes, it appears to
occur without the respective attitudinal antecedent. The A-BR framework
suggests behaviors directed at a product are guided or influenced by a
corresponding attitude toward said product. Specifically, consumption is
the result of a positive attitude about the product and non-consumption
is the result of a negative or non-attitude about a product (Fazio et
al., 1989). Extended to the sport industry, it was determined that only
a weak or non-attitude influences non-consumption, as even a strong
negative attitude toward a sport team resulted in media consumption
(Mahony & Howard, 1998; Mahony & Moorman, 1999). Therefore, the
statistically significant decrease in media consumption intentions
(behavior) as a result of favorite NFL team failure appears to
circumvent the A-BR framework as the attachment to favorite NFL team
scores (attitude) remained constant for all groups.

This counter intuitive phenomenon supports previous fantasy sports
research that suggests a sport-distinct disconnect between one's
highly-developed attitudes and behaviors with regard to one's
favorite team (Dwyer, 2011a). However, several questions remain as to
why a participant's behavior changes without an attitudinal guide.
Perhaps it speaks to the uniqueness of sport as a product or the depth
and power of the favorite NFL team bond? Perhaps it is the result of
having additional competitive viewership options provided through
fantasy football participation (Dwyer & Kim, 2011)? Regardless,
further research in this area is needed to more deeply explain this
indirect relationship.

[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]

The results regarding general NFL media consumption provide new
knowledge about fantasy participation as it appears fantasy-related
outcomes are more impactful in driving viewership of NFL pre-game shows,
post-game shows, and ESPN's MNF. In other words, fantasy failure is
more likely to inhibit one's interest in following the NFL from a
league-wide perspective than favorite team failure. This somewhat
confirms the conceptual framework that suggests fantasy participation
leads to a league-wide interest. However, this study's results
suggest that as a season progresses, it is not fantasy participation per
se that drives media consumption it is fantasy success. If one's
fantasy team is not successful, media consumption will decrease
significantly. Favorite NFL team outcomes, however, had little impact in
league-wide media consumption.

The Fantasy Football/NFL Consumption Framework Revisited

For the most part, the current study's findings validate
proposition 3 of Drayer et al.'s conceptual framework for fantasy
football participation and NFL consumption. In-season game outcomes
impact the attitudes and behavioral intentions of fantasy football
participants. However, one major revision is suggested, and as a result,
further research is strongly advised. The revision centers on the
feedback loop to one's normative attitudes related to their
favorite NFL team (Figure 12). This study's results suggest game
outcomes do not impact team identification. Thus, the feedback loop
proposed by the authors is not supported. However, game outcomes do
impact behavioral intentions. This implies something else, perhaps
another variable or another stage within the framework, is driving this
change in behavior. The current revision suggests this may occur in the
Definition of the Event stage, but further inquiry is needed to validate
this proposition.

Limitations to the study certainly exist. For instance, only
attraction to fantasy players and team identification were examined from
an attitudinal perspective. Drayer et al. (2010) identified
interactivity and team loyalty as other attitudes attributed to fantasy
football participation and NFL fandom, respectively. In addition, the
attraction items need to be validated. The application within this study
just piloted, panel-tested, and sample-tested twice on the same group.
The current results related to the framework should also be tempered
slightly as the entire model was not examined. In addition, the
attitudes and behavioral intentions examined represent only a small
fraction of a very large population of fantasy football participants.
The replication of the same design with larger samples would be
fruitful. Furthermore, it is prudent to remind the readers that fantasy
sports participants are hardcore sports fans and these results do not
parallel the general sport fan population. The extension to other
fantasy sports is also advised. The current results are limited to
fantasy football.

References

Azjen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2000). Attitudes and the
attitude-behavior relation: Reasoned and automatic processes. European
Review of Social Psychology, 11, 1-33.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations:
A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological
Bulletin, 84, 888918.

Bristow, D. N., & Sebastian, R. J. (2001). Holy cow! Wait
'til next year! A closer look at the brand loyalty of Chicago Cubs
baseball fans. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18, 256-275.

Callero, P. L. (1985). Role-identity salience. Social Psychology
Quarterly, 48, 203-215.

Drayer, J., Shapiro, S. L., Dwyer, B., Morse, A. L., & White,
J. (2010). The effects of fantasy football participation on NFL
consumption: A qualitative analysis. Sport Management Review, 13,
129-141.

Dwyer, B. (2011a). Divided loyalty? An analysis of fantasy football
involvement and fan loyalty to individual National Football League (NFL)
teams. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 445-457.

Dwyer, B. (2011b). The impact of attitudes and fantasy football
involvement on intentions to watch NFL teams on television.
International Journal of Sport Communication, 4, 375-396.

Dwyer, B., & Drayer, J. (2010). Fantasy sport consumer
segmentation: An investigation into the differing consumption modes of
fantasy football participants. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 19, 207-216.

Dwyer, B., & Kim, Y. (2011). For love or money: Developing and
validating a motivational scale for fantasy football participation.
Journal of Sport Management, 25, 70-83.

Dwyer, B., Shapiro, S.L., & Drayer, J. (2011). Segmenting
motivation: An analysis of fantasy baseball motives and mediated sport
consumption. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 20, 129-137.

Fantasy Sports Trade Association. (2008a). Fantasy sport consumer
spending: Fantasy sports products and services. Proceedings from the
FSTA Winter Business Conference. Denver, CO.

Fantasy Sports Trade Association. (2011, June 10). Fantasy
sports-participation sets all-time record, grows past 32 million
players. Retrieved from http://www.fsta.org/blog/fsta-press-release

Farquhar, L .K., & Meeds, R. (2007). Types of fantasy sports
users and their motivations. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication,
12, 1208-1228.

Fazio, R. H., Powell, M. C., & Herr, P. M. (1983). Toward a
process model of the attitude-behavior relation: Accessing one's
attitude upon mere observation of the attitude object. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 723-735.

Fazio, R. H., Powell, M. C., & Williams, C. J. (1989). The role
of attitude accessibility in the attitude-to-behavior process. Journal
of Consumer Behavior, 16, 280-288.

Fazio, R. H., & Zanna, M. P. (1978). Attitudinal qualities
relating to the strength of the attitude-behavior relationship. Journal
of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 398-408.

Fisher, E., (2008, November 17). Study: Fantasy players spend big.
Street & Smith's SportsBusiness Journal, 11, 1-2.

Fornell, C., &, Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating structural
equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error.
Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39-50.

Fortunato, J. A. (2004). The rival concept: An analysis of the 2002
Monday Night Football season. Journal of Sport Management, 18, 383-397.

Foxall, G. (1990). Consumer psychology in behavioural perspective.
London, UK: Routledge.

Funk, D. C., & James, J. (2001). The Psychological Continuum
Model (PCM): A conceptual framework for understanding an
individual's psychological connection to sport. Sport Management
Review, 4, 119-150.

Funk, D. C., & James, J. (2006). Customer loyalty: The meaning
of attachment in the development of sport team allegiance. Journal of
Sport Management, 20, 189-217.

Havitz, M. E., & Dimanche, F. (1997). Leisure involvement
revisited: Conceptual conundrums and measurement advances. Journal of
Leisure Research, 29, 245-278.

Herr, P. (1995). Whither fact, artifact, and attitude: Reflections
on the theory of reasoned action. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 4,
371-380.

Iwasaki, Y., & Havitz, M. E. (1998). A path analytic model of
the relationships between involvement, psychological commitment, and
loyalty. Journal of Leisure Research, 30, 256-280.

Karg, A. J., & McDonald, H. (2011). Fantasy sport participation
as a complement to traditional sport consumption. Sport Management
Review, 14, 327-346.

Kwak, D. H., Lim, C. H., Lee, W. Y., & Mahan, J. (2010). How
confident are you to win your fantasy league: Exploring the antecedents
and consequences of winning expectancy. Journal of Sport Management, 24,
416-433.

Kwon, H. H., Trail, G. T., & Anderson, D. (2006). Points of
attachment (identification) and licensed merchandise consumption among
American college students. International Journal of Sport Management 7,
347-360.

Laurent, G., & Kapferer, J. (1985). Measuring consumer
involvement profiles. Journal of Marketing Research, 22, 1-53.

Madrigal. R. (1995). Cognitive and affective determinants of fan
satisfaction with sporting event attendance. Journal of Leisure
Research, 27, 205-227.

Mahony, D. F., & Howard, D. R. (1998). The impact of attitudes
on the behavioral intentions of sport spectators. International Sports
Journal, 2, 96-110.

Mahony, D. F., & Moorman, A. M. (1999). The impact of attitudes
on intentions to watch professional basketball teams on television.
Sport Management Review, 2, 43-66.

Mahony, D. F., & Moorman, A. M. (2000). The relationship
between the attitudes of professional sport fans and their intentions to
watch televised games. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 9, 131-139.

Nesbit, T. M., & King, K. A. (2010a). The impact of fantasy
sports on television viewership. Journal of Media Economics, 23, 24-41.

Nesbit, T. M., & King, K. A. (2010b). The impact of fantasy
football participation on NFL attendance. Atlantic Economic Journal, 38,
95-108.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York,
NY: McGraw-Hill.

Oates, T. P. (2009). New media and the repackaging of NFL fandom.
Sociology of Sport Journal, 26, 31-49.

Robinson, M. J., & Trail, G. T. (2005). Relationships among
spectator gender, motives, points of attachment, and sport preference.
Journal of Sport Management, 19, 58-80.

Shapiro, S. L., Drayer, J., & Dwyer, B. (2011, October).
Exploring fantasy baseball consumer behavior: Examining the relationship
between identification, fantasy participation, and consumption. Paper
presented at the Ninth Sport Marketing Association Conference, Houston,
TX.

Tajfel, H., & Turner J. C. (1986). The social identity theory
of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology
of intergroup relations (pp. 6-13). Chicago, IL: Nelson Hall.

Trail, G. T., Anderson, D. F., & Fink, I. S. (2000). A
theoretical model of sport spectator consumption behavior. International
Journal of Sport Management, 1, 154-180.

Trail, G. T., Anderson, D. F., & Fink, J. S. (2005). Consumer
satisfaction and identity theory: A model of sport spectator conative
loyalty. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14, 98-111.

Trail, G. T., Fink, J. S., & Anderson, D. F. (2003). Sport
spectator consumption behavior. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 12, 8-17.

Trail, G. T., Robinson, M. J., Dick, R. J., & Gillentine, A. J.
(2003). Motives and points of attachment: Fans versus spectators in
intercollegiate athletics. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 12, 217-227.

Walker, M., & Heere, B. (2011). Consumer attitudes toward
responsible entities in sport (CARES): Scale development and model
testing. Sport Management Review, 14, 153-166.

Wann, D. L., & Branscombe, N. R. (1993). Sport fans: Measuring
degree of identification with their team. International Journal of Sport
Psychology, 24, 1-17.

Zillman, D., Bryant, J., & Sapolsky, B.S. (1989). Enjoyment
from sports spectatorship. In J. D. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and
play: Social and psychosocial viewpoints (2nd ed., pp. 241-278),
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brendan Dwyer, PhD, is the director of research and distance
learning for the Center for Sport Leadership at Virginia Commonwealth
University. His research interests center around sport consumer behavior
with a distinct focus on the media consumption habits of fantasy sport
participants and the consumer psychology surrounding sport pricing
transactions.

Table 1
Sample Demographic and Descriptive Statistics (n=236)

Age                    32.525, Mean
                       9.784, St. Dev.
                       18-59, Range

Gender                 87.0%, Male
                       3.8%, Female
                       9.2%, Did not specify

Education              19.2%, High School
                       32.8%, Bachelor's Degree
                       22.9%, Graduate Degree
                       15.2%, Other
                       9.9%, Did not specify

Household              18.3%, Less than $50K
Income                 35.9%, $50K-$99K
                       22.9%, $100K-$150K
                       6.1%, More than $150K
                       16.8%, Did not specify

Ethnicity              81.7%, Caucasian
                       8.4%, Other
                       9.9%, Did not specify

Money Allocated        $107.40, Mean
to League Pool         $111.15, St. Dev.
                       $0-$750, Range

Years Played           6.366, Mean
                       4.616, St. Dev.
                       1-24, Range

Number of              3.840, Mean
Teams Owned            4.423, St. Dev.

Money Spent on         $12.76, Mean
Fantasy Football       $36.81, St. Dev.
Products & Services    $0-$350, Range

Table 2
Reliability and Convergent Validity of Attitudinal Constructs

                       Cronbach's       AVE        Correlation
                        [alpha]
                       Pre    Post   Pre    Post   Pre      Post

NFL Team Attachment    .813   .795   .546   .532   -.102    -.087
(1 dimension; Trail
et al., 2008)

Being a fan of the
[favorite NFL team]
is very important to
me.

I would experience a
loss if I had to
stop being a fan of
the [favorite NFL
team].

I consider myself to
be a "real" fan of
the [favorite NFL
team].

Attraction to          .803   .811   .513   .588   --       --
Fantasy Football
Players * (1
dimension)

Following my fantasy
football players is
a pleasurable
experience.

The performance of
my fantasy football
players is important
to me.

My fantasy football
players interest me.

* New Construct

If you are looking for a different item here"s a list of related products on Top Shelf Antiques, please check out the following:

See More About:    Nfl Football        Nfl Football        

Other Items People View After These Listings About